Iran has railed against US sanctions imposed on 10 citizens and a tech firm accused of cyber attacks on at least 320 universities worldwide, along with US firms and government agencies.
Tehran called the sanctions a gimmick that was provocative, illegal and unjustified.
The Mabna Institute is accused of stealing 31 terabytes of “valuable intellectual property and data”.
Iranian foreign ministry spokesperson Bahram Qassemi said the new US sanctions were an act of provocation, and that the move would not prevent Iran’s technological progress.
“The US will definitely not benefit from the sanctions gimmick, aimed at stopping or preventing the scientific growth of the Iranian people,” Mr Qassemi said in a statement.
The indicted individuals are still in Iran. They were called “fugitives of justice” by US Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, and could face extradition in more than 100 countries if they travelled outside Iran.
Many of the “intrusions”, Mr Rosenstein said, were done “at the behest of the Iranian government and, specifically, the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps”.